G. Bertoni. 2007. Plasma paraoxonase, health, inflammatory conditions, and liver function in transition dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 1740-1750.
[38] Bossaert, P., E. Trevisi, G. Opsomer, G. Bertoni, S. De Vliegher and J. L. M. R. Leroy. 2012. The association between indicators of inflammation and liver variables during the transition period in high-yielding dairy cows: An observational study. Vet. J. 192: 222-225.
[39] Bouwstra, R. J., M. Nielen, J. A. Stegeman, P. Dobbelaar, J. R. Newbold, E. H. J. M. Jansen and T. v. Werven. 2010. Vitamin E supplementation during the dry period in dairy cattle. Part I: Adverse effect on incidence of mastitis postpartum in a double-blind randomized field trial. J. Dairy Sci. 93: 5684-5695.
[40] Boyd, J., J. W. West, J. K. Bernard and S. S. Block. 2012. Effects of plant extracts on milk yield and apparent efficiency of lactating dairy cows during hot weather. Prof. Anim. Sci. 28: 338-343.
[41] Bradford, B. J. and M. S. Allen. 2008. Negative energy balance increases periprandial ghrelin and growth hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 34: 196-203.
[42] Bradford, B. J., L. K. Mamedova, J. E. Minton, J. S. Drouillard and B. J. Johnson. 2009. Daily Injection of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Increases Hepatic Triglycerides and Alters Transcript Abundance of Metabolic Genes in Lactating Dairy Cattle. J. Nutr. 139: 1451-1456.
[43] Braga, M. E. M., P. F. Leal, J. E. Carvalho and M. A. A. Meireles. 2003. Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 6604-6611.
[44] Brennan, K. M., E. N. Terry, J. J. Michal, R. L. Kincaid and K. A. Johnson. 2009. Body weight loss in beef cows: II. Increased antioxidant messenger ribonucleic acid levels in skeletal muscle but not erythrocyte antioxidant activity. J. Anim. Sci. 87: 2867-2873.
[45] Broadhurst, C. L. 1997. Nutrition and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus from an anthropological perspective. Altern Med Rev 25: 378-399.
[46] Broadhurst, C. L., M. M. Polansky and R. A. Anderson. 2000. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 849-852.
[47] Brown, M. A. 2008. IL-4 production by T cells: You need a little to get a lot. J. Immunol. 181: 2941-2942.
[48] Bruckmaier, R. M., L. Gregoretti, F. Jans, D. Faissler and J. W. Blum. 1998. Longissimus dorsi muscle diameter, backfat thickness, body condition scores and skinfold values related to metabolic and endocrine traits in lactating dairy cows fed crystalline fat or free fatty acids. J. Vet. Med. Ser. A. 45: 397-410.
[49] Burt, S. 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94: 223- 253.
[50] Butler, W. R. and R. D. Smith. 1989. Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 72: 767-783.
[51] Calder, P. C. 2002. Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc. Nutr. Soc. London. 61: 345-358
[52] Calder, P. C. 2004. Fatty acids and gene expression related to inflammation. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme. 36-40.
[53] Calder, P. C. 2007. Immunomodulation by omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 77 327-335.
[54] Calder, P. C. 1998. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 31: 467-490.
[55] Calder, P. C. 1997. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 41: 203-234.
[56] Calder, P. C., J. A. Bond, D. J. Harvey, S. Gordon and E. A. Newsholme. 1990. Uptake and incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into macrophage lipids and their effect upon macrophage adhesion and phagocytosis. Biochem. J 269: 807-814.
[57] Calsamiglia, S., M. Busquet, P. W. Cardozo, L. Castillejos and A. Ferret. 2007. Invited review: essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 2580-2595.
[58] Cardozo, P. W., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret and C. Kamel. 2006. Effects of alfalfa extract, anise, capsicum, and a mixture of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on ruminal fermentation and protein degradation in beef heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. J. Anim. Sci. 84: 2801-2808.
[59] Cardozo, P. W., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret and C. Kamel. 2004. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. J. Anim. Sci. 82: 3230-3236.
[60] Cardozo, P. W., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret and C. Kamel. 2005. Screening for the effects of natural plant extracts at different pH on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation of a high-concentrate diet for beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 83: 2572-2579.
[61] Carlsen, M. H., B. L. Halvorsen, K. Holte, S. K. Bohn, S. Dragland, L. Sampson, C. Willey, H. Senoo, Y. Umezono, C. Sanada, I. Barikmo, N. Berhe, W. C. Willett, K. M. Phillips, D. R. Jacobs and R. Blomhoff. 2010. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutr. J. 9: 3-14.
[62] Caroprese, M., A. Marzano, G. Entrican, S. Wattegedera, M. Albenzio and A. Sevi. 2009. Immune response of cows fed polyunsaturated fatty acids under high ambient temperature. J . Dairy Sci. 92: 2796-2803.
[63] Cartiff, S. E., V. Fellner and J. H. Eisemann. 2013. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids increase insulin sensitivity in growing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 2332-2342.
[64] Castillejos, L., S. Calsamiglia and A. Ferret. 2006. Effect of essential oil active compounds on rumen microbial fermentation and nutrient flow in in vitro systems. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 2649-2658.
[65] Castillo, C., J. L. Benedito, P. V?zquez, V. Pereira, J. Méndez, J. Sotillo and J. Hern?ndez. 2012. Effects of supplementation with plant extract product containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin on serum metabolites and enzymes during the finishing phase of feedlot-fed bull calves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 171: 246-250.
[66] Castillo, C., J. Hernandez, M. Lopez-Alonso, M. Miranda and J. L. Benedito. 2003. Values of plasma lipid hydroperoxides and total antioxidant status in healthy dairy cows: preliminary observations. Arch Tierzucht. 46: 227-234.
[67] Chagas, L. M., J. J. Bass, D. Blache, C. R. Burke, J. K. Kay, D. R. Lindsay, M. C. Lucy, G. B. Martin, S. Meier, F. M. Rhodes, J. R. Roche, W. W. Thatcher and R. Webb. 2007. Invited review: new perspectives on the roles of nutrition and metabolic priorities in the subfertility of high-producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90: 4022-4032.
[68] Chao, L. K., K. F. Hu, H. Y. Hsu, S. S. Cheng, F. Lin, C. J. Chen, S. T. Chen and S. T. Chang. 2008. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion from monocytes/macrophages through suppression of intracellular signaling. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 220-231.
[69] Charles, D. 2013. Antioxidant Properties of Spices, Herbs and Other Sources. Springer New York,
[70] Chilliard, Y. and A. Ferlay. 2004. Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 44: 467-492.
[71] Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel and M. Doreau. 2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109: 828-855.
[72] Chiofalo, V., L. Liotta, R. Fiuman?, E. B. Riolo and B. Chiofalo. 2012. Influence of dietary supplementation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on performances of dairy ewes organically managed. Small Ruminant Res. 104: 122-128.
[73] Cimanga, K., K. Kambu, L. Tona, S. Apers, T. De Bruyne, N. Hermans, J. Totté, L. Pieters and A. J. Vlietinck. 2002. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J. Ethnopharmac
ol. 79: 213-220.
[74] Connor, W. E. 2000. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71: 71S-75S.
[75] Contreras, G. A. and L. M. Sordillo. 2011. Lipid mobilization and inflammatory responses during the transition period of dairy cows. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 34: 281-289.
[76] Cosgrove, J., D. Church and W. Pryor. 1987. The kinetics of the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 22: 299-304.
[77] D’Archivio, M., C. Filesi, R. Var?, B. Scazzocchio and R. Masella. 2010. Bioavailability of the polyphenols: Status and controversies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11: 1321-1342.
[78] Daker, M., N. Abdullah, S. Vikineswary, P. C. Goh and U. R. Kuppusamy. 2008. Antioxidant from maize and maize fermented by Marasmiellus sp. as stabiliser of lipid-rich foods. Food Chem. 107: 1092-1098.
[79] De Koster, J. D. and G. Opsomer. 2013. Insulin resistance in dairy cows. Vet. Clin. N. Am: Food Anim Prac. 29: 299-322.
[80] Deckelbaum, R. J., T. S. Worgall and T. Seo. 2006. n?3 Fatty acids and gene expression. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83: 1520-1525.
[81] Doepel, L., H. Lapierre and J. J. Kennelly. 2002. Peripartum Performance and Metabolism of Dairy Cows in Response to Prepartum Energy and Protein Intake. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 2315-2334.
[82] Doreau, M. and Y. Chilliard. 1997. Digestion and metabolism of dietary fat in farm animals. Br. J. Nutr. 78: S15-S35.
[83] Douglas, G. N., T. R. Overton, H. G. Bateman, H. M. Dann and J. K. Drackley. 2006. Prepartal plane of nutrition, regardless of dietary energy source, affects periparturient metabolism and dry matter intake in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89: 2141-2157.
[84] Drackley, J. K. 1999. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier? J. Dairy Sci. 82: 2259-2273.
[85] Dragland, S., H. Senoo, K. Wake, K. Holte and R. Blomhoff. 2003. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J. Nutr. 133: 1286-1290.

دسته بندی : پایان نامه ها

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید